Where is Mongolia located? Map of Mongolia…
Where Is Mongolia Located? Mongolia Map
Ulaanbaatar, the historical capital founded in 1369, was before 1924 the residence of Bogdo-Gegen, the living Buddha, head of the Mongol Church. Other major cities are Darhan and Erdenet, a mining center that developed rapidly in the 1970s.
Mongolia has a total area of 1,566,500 km². Its territory covers the high plains and mountain ranges that form a barrier between Siberia and China, from the Altai to the Grand Hinggan Massif, nearly 2,000 km from west to east. From north to south, the average width of Mongolia is 800 km. The altitude varies between 1,000 and 2,000 m in three quarters of the country. The lowest point is 552m and the Altai Mountains are 4,620m high. The Gobi Desert covers the vast regions of Central and Southeast.
In the north-west, mountainous Mongolia presents an alternation of chains and interior depressions flowing towards lakes (Lake Oubsou), the other currents towards the sea by the valleys of the Siberian rivers. The Altai forms a bow and gives a natural border to Mongolia. In the middle stand the Khangai Mountains, massive 700 km long and main reservoir of the country.
The Gobi Desert forms a depression, a plateau that has been sinking for millennia, corresponding to the eastern half of Mongolia. It comprises a series of basins, the talas, that frame small ridges. Inside the talas there are smaller, stony or sandy basins, the gobis, characteristic formations that gave their name to the most deprived country in the country. Intense wind erosion prevents vegetation in some places.
The hydrographic network is exclusively peripheral and circumscribed to the mountainous systems of the North. The Selenga, fed by the glaciers of Khangai, and its affluent Orkhon gol form the largest watershed (282 000 km2). Their waters mingle near the Russian border and are tributary to the Arctic by Lake Baikal. To the east, a sub-tributary of Love, Onon, drains some valleys. The Keroulen Basin ends at Dalai Nor, in Chinese territory. Most of Mongolia is a purely endorheic drainage. The mountainous West is the region of large lakes such as Khoubso (2,600 km at 1,624 m altitude), Oubsa, the largest in Mongolia (3,350 km2), Kara-Ousou and Hövsgöl which occupy the depressions between the mountain ranges. In the Gobi, rare and irregular streams are lost in the sands and sometimes give rise to brackish ponds during the wet season
The climate of Mongolia is continental. Mongolia is the land of winds. Differences in daytime temperatures can exceed 40 ° C. The atmospheric mechanism is immutable: high pressures in winter, low pressures in summer. The wind regime is relentless and brutal. In winter, squalls blow from the north-northwest by -25 ° C, – 30 ° C, on average. In summer, dry thunderstorms at 35 ° C-40 ° C are also painful. The summer rainfall in the Gobi is around 150 mm, reaching about 300 mm in the mountainous regions.