Indonesia, in long form the Republic of Indonesia, is a transcontinental country mainly located in Southeast Asia. With, to date, 13,466 islands, of which 922 inhabited, it is the largest archipelago in the world. With an estimated population of 265 million people, it is the fourth most populous country in the world and the first country with a Muslim majority for the number of believers. Indonesia is a republic whose capital is Jakarta.
Indonesia is a country in Southeast Asia (Far East), on the archipelagos between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.
The Indonesian archipelago or Nusantara is generally divided into several archipelagos:
- the Sunda Islands to the west – themselves subdivided between the large Sunda Islands to the west (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi) and the small Sunda Islands, a string of islands extending south of the country from Bali to Timor.
- the Moluccas to the East, whose main islands are Halmahera in the North, Seram in the center and the Aru Islands and Tanimbar Islands in the South
- New Guinea to the east.
Indonesia, with the exception of New Guinea, is often considered part of a larger archipelago, the Insulinde.
The largest islands in Indonesia are Java, home to nearly half of the country’s population, Sumatra, Borneo (which is shared with Malaysia and Brunei), West Papua (the western part of New Guinea) and Sulawesi.
The island of Bali is the only true international tourist destination of Indonesia.
Other notable islands include Timor and Flores Island (where a new species of hominids was discovered in 2003: homo floresiensis).
The warm waters bathing Indonesia ensure a mild, tropical climate all year round. Average temperatures are 28 ° C along the coastal plains and 23 to 26 ° C in the central islands mountains. The relative humidity oscillates between 70 and 90%. The winds are moderate, the monsoon usually blowing from the south-east between June and September, from north-west between December and March. Typhoons and storms are rarely dangerous, and currents between islands represent the greatest risk to navigation, especially in the Lombok Strait.