Where is Afghanistan located? Map of Afghanistan…
Where Is Afghanistan Located? Afghanistan Map
Afghanistan is a country in Southwest Asia. The country is called Afghānistān in Pashto and Afghānestān in Dari. Afghanistan is bordered on the north by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, on the far north-east by China, east and south by Pakistan, and on the west by Iran.
The maximum length of Afghanistan is about 1,450 km, and its width about 725 km. Its surface is 652 225 km². It is an essentially mountainous country. The lowlands do not exceed 10% of its area; they correspond to the river valleys of the North and to several desert plains of the South and the South-West. The rest of the country is formed by the mountain, 40% of the land being between 1500 and 2000 m altitude.
Nearly half of the country’s urban population lives in Kabul (2,956,000 inhabitants in 2003). Located in the center-east of the country, the Afghan capital controls the vital roads that pass through the parades. Other important cities are Kandahar in the south, Herat in the west and Mazar-e Sharif in the north. Afghanistan is divided into 34 provinces, each headed by a governor appointed by the central government. Provinces are divided into districts and sub-districts.
Afghanistan is a region of convergence between the Turkish, Iranian and Central Asian chains. The main mountain range in the country is the Hindu Kush, which, with its many ramifications, stretches about 965 km from the Pamir in the north-east to the Iranian border to the west. The average altitude of the Hindu Kush, which reaches 7,690 m at the Tirich Mir, is about 4,270 m. The chain of Safed Koh is oriented along an east-west axis, and that of Koh-i-Baba (5 143 m) is the “water tower” of the country. This rugged and compartmentalized terrain makes internal communications and links with neighboring countries difficult. From Kabul, to reach the Harazajat, in the center of the country, the traveler has to cross about 15 passes, all located at more than 3 000 m of altitude. The communication routes take natural passages through the mountains, such as the Shibar Pass (3000 m) or the Salang Pass Tunnel, dug in 1964 – the other way to cross the Hindu Kush. Then, from the Kabul region, you can go to the north of the country, or the Khyber Pass to the North-East border, a historic gateway to India and Pakistan, which crosses the Dinaric chain of the Sulayman Mountains. (1400 m altitude).
The country extends over a still unstable tectonic zone, where the seismic activity is important. The plains and foothills are all formed by glacis of erosion and accumulation. The high northern plains are the most fertile because covered with loess, while the southern part of the country is the domain of the Dacht, a semi-arid or arid steppe plain.
The Afghan hydrographic network is endoreic. The main rivers of Afghanistan are the Amu Darya (known in antiquity as Oxus), on the border of Tajikistan, Kabul, which flows into the Indus, Helmand, the longest river in the country (1,400 km) in the south, and the Hari rud (1,130 km) in the west, which is lost in the steppes of Turkmenistan. With the exception of Kabul, all streams flow into lakes or wetlands.
The climate is of the arid continental type, but has great variations, not only regional but also daily and seasonal. During the same day, temperature variations can oscillate between frost at dawn and 38 ° C at noon. In the northern valleys, summer temperatures can rise to 49 ° C. In Kabul, which is about 1800 m above sea level, winters are cold and summers are pleasant. In Djalālābād (at about 550 m altitude), the climate is subtropical, and that of Kandahar (over 1000 m altitude) is mild. Everywhere, summers are dry.
Precipitation, with an annual average of 305 mm, occurs mainly between October and April; in plateau and steppe areas, they do not exceed 100 mm per year.