What Is Tourism? Tourism Definition
Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon that involves moving people to countries or places outside of their usual environment for personal, professional or business purposes. These people are called visitors (and may be tourists or day-trippers, residents or non-residents) and tourism related to their activities, which suppose for some tourist spending.
Tourism therefore has repercussions on the economy, on the natural and built environment, on the local population of the destination and on the tourists themselves. Because of these multiple impacts, the range and variety of factors of production required to produce these goods and services purchased by visitors, and the range of agents interested or affected by tourism, it is necessary to adopt an integrated approach to tourism development, management and control. This approach is strongly recommended for the formulation and implementation of national and local tourism policies, as well as necessary international agreements or other mechanisms concerning tourism.
Economic analysis of tourism
In the economic analysis of tourism, it is necessary to distinguish between the “economic contribution” of tourism, which refers to the direct consequences of tourism and is evaluable through the CST, and the “economic impact” of tourism, a much broader concept which represents the synthesis of the direct, indirect and induced effects of tourism and which must be evaluated by applying models.
Economic impact studies are aimed at quantifying the economic benefits, namely the net increase in the wealth of residents resulting from tourism, measured in monetary terms, in excess of the levels that would otherwise exist.
Tourism Satellite Account (TSA)
The Tourism Satellite Account (described in the Tourism Satellite Account: Recommendations for the 2008 Conceptual Framework (CST: RCC 2008)) is, after the 2008 International Recommendations on Tourism Statistics, the second set of recommendations on tourism statistics. developed on the basis of the system of national accounts. Both documents are in harmony with each other and provide a conceptual framework for measuring and analyzing tourism as an economic activity.
As a statistical instrument for economic measurement of tourism, the TSA can be considered as a set of 10 summary tables, each containing data and representing a distinct aspect of the economic data of tourism: inbound tourism, domestic tourism, outbound and inland tourism, production accounts of tourism industries, gross value added and gross domestic product (GDP) resulting from tourism demand, employment, investment, government consumption, and non-monetary indicators.
Tourism expenditures refer to the amount paid for the purchase of consumer goods and services, but also valuable goods, for personal use or to provide them, for and during tourist trips.
Destination (main destination) of a trip
Employment in tourism industries
Employment in tourism industries can be estimated by counting persons employed in tourism industries, regardless of their job position, enumeration of persons having their main job in tourism industries, enumeration of workstations in tourism industries, or the equivalent expressed in full-time jobs.
The usual environment of a person, a key concept of tourism, is defined as the geographic area (not necessarily contiguous) within which a person conducts his or her usual daily activities.
Excursionist (or visitor of the day)
A visitor (internal tourism, receiver or emitter) is qualified as visitor of the day (or excursionist) if his trip does not include night on the spot.
Forms of tourism
There are three forms of basic tourism: domestic tourism, inbound tourism and outbound tourism. These three forms can be combined in different ways to give these additional forms: domestic tourism, national tourism and international tourism.
Group of travelers
Congress, Meeting, Trade Fair Industry
A trip for business and professional reasons can be divided into two categories: “meetings, conferences or conventions, trade shows and exhibitions” and “other business and professional reasons”.
The International Congress and Convention Association (ICCA), Meeting Professionals International (MPI) and Reed Travel prefer the term “convention, meeting, trade show and trade fair industry” to the acronym MICE (meetings, incentives, conferences and presentations) that does not recognize the industrial nature of these activities.
Tourism Industries. What Is Tourism Industry?
Tourism characteristic products are those that fulfill at least one of the following two conditions:
(a) Tourism expenditure on the product (good or service) must represent a significant share of total tourism expenditure (condition relating to the share corresponding to expenditure / demand);
(b) Tourism expenditure on the product must be an important part of the supply of the product in the economy (condition of the share corresponding to the supply). This condition assumes that the supply of a characteristic tourism product would cease to exist in significant quantities in the absence of visitors.
1. Accommodation services for visitors 1. Visitor accommodation
2. Food and Beverage Services 2. Food and Beverage Services Activities
3. Passenger transport services by rail 3. Passenger transport by rail
4. Road passenger transport services 4. Road passenger transport
5. Passenger transport services by inland waterways 5. Passenger transport by inland waterways
6. Passenger transport services by air 6. Passenger transport by air
7. Transportation Equipment Rental Services 7. Rental of transport equipment
8. Travel agencies and other reservation services 8. Travel agency activities and other reservation service activities
9. Cultural Services 9. Cultural activities
10. Sports and recreation services 10. Sports and recreation activities
11. Tourism characteristic properties, specific to each 11. Retail trade of tourism characteristic goods, specific country to each country
12. Tourism-specific services, specific to each country 12. Other characteristic tourism activities, specific to each country
Place of usual residence
A holiday home is a secondary dwelling where members of the household visit for recreation, vacation or other leisure purposes.
Look Congress Industry, Meetings, Fairs and Exhibitions.
Reason (main) of a tourist trip
The main reason for a tourist trip is defined as the motive in the absence of which the trip would not have taken place. The classification of tourist trips according to the main reason for travel refers to nine categories: this typology makes it possible to identify different subsets of visitors (visitors on business trips, visitors in transit, etc.). See also Destination of a trip.
The country of reference refers to the country where the evaluation is carried out.
It should be noted that in the 2008 International Recommendations:
(a) The term “country” may be transposed to another geographical level by using the term “place” in its place (for a region, municipality or other subnational geographic location);
(b) The term “long term” refers to a period of at least one year and “short term” to a period of less than one year.
Country of residence
The country of residence of a household is determined according to the main economic interest of its members. If a person resides (or intends to reside) more than a year in a given country and has his or her center of economic interest (where she spends the most time for example), she is considered a resident of that country.
The tourism sector, as envisioned in the TSA, is the set of production units from different industries that supply the consumer goods and services requested by visitors. These industries are called tourism industries because visitor spending is such an important part of their offer that it would cease to exist in significant numbers in the absence of visitors.
International tourism includes inbound tourism plus outbound tourism, that is, the activities of resident visitors outside the reference country, in the context of internal tourism or outbound travel, and the activities of non-resident visitors. Residents within the reference country in the context of inbound tourism trips.
Includes the activities of a non-resident visitor within the boundaries of the country of reference, as part of a receiving tourism trip.
Tourist (or visitor who stays overnight)
A visitor is a person who travels to a destination outside their usual environment for less than one year and whose main reason for the visit (business, leisure or other personal reason) is other than perform paid work in the country or place visited. A visitor (internal tourism, receiver or transmitter) is described as a tourist (or visitor who spends the night) if he spends a night on site, and visitor of the day (or excursionist) otherwise.
Visitor for business
Travel / Tourism
Travel refers to the activities of travelers. A traveler is a person who moves between different geographical locations for any reason and duration. The visitor is a particular type of traveler, so that tourism is a subset of the trips.